Oliver Cromwell Coins
Oliver Cromwell, though not a monarch, was both head of state and head of government for the newly formed Commonwealth of England. He served as Lord Protector from 1653 until his death in 1658. An intensely religious man, he became a puritan following religious conversion in the 1630s. Coins produced during his period of rule were Crowns and Shillings.
Born in 1599, the early years of Oliver Cromwell’s life are undocumented. He began his political career as an MP for Huntingdon in 1628, and later as an MP for Cambridge (1640 to 1649). He is famous for his impact on the English Civil War, showing an aptitude for military command that soon saw him promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-General in the army of the Roundheads.
Following the trial and subsequent execution of King Charles I, Cromwell went on to dominate the political climate of the newly formed Commonwealth of England. He continued to lead military campaigns across Ireland and Scotland, ending the Irish Confederate Wars. From 1653 he became the Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Wales, maintaining an aggressive foreign policy for the duration of his reign.
He died in 1658 and was given an elaborate funeral at Westminster Abbey. His son Richard succeeded him as Lord Protector who failed to gain any political or military support and was forced to resign in 1659. Within a year Charles II was invited back from exile and the monarchy was reinstated. Cromwell’s body was then exhumed and given a posthumous execution.