King Charles II was the son of Charles I and king of England, Scotland, and Ireland - though his premiership was intermittent due to the state of national politics.
Charles II ruled Scotland from 1649 until 1651, when military rule deposed him. With Cromwell's death came turmoil in Britain, and Charles II returned to be crowned King of England, Scotland and Ireland; a position he held until his death in 1685.
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King Charles I was executed at Whitehall on January 30th, 1649 at the end of the English Civil War, with Oliver Cromwell forming a Commonwealth to rule England afterwards. Following the execution, Charles II was both proclaimed the new King of Scotland but also a criminal in England, from where he fled as an exile to France, the Netherlands, and Spain, before returning to the British throne.